Once seen only among adults, diseases such as Type 2 diabetes are becoming more common in paediatrics and adolescent population due to diet and sedentary lifestyle. The mentioned circumstances can have inevitable cardiovascular related consequences.
The aortic pulse wave velocity and the arterial stiffness measurements are the basic parameters to gather information regarding one’s vascular health. It is well known that cardiovascular risk protection and prevention requires promising tools to expand our understanding of the cardiovascular risk imposed on youths.
Without any doubts, one of the crucial predictors of developing cardiovascular diseases is "arterial stiffness" which can also be seen in children. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) as a direct and the augmentation index (AIx) as indirect marker provide information about the status of the arterial system.
This cohort study had been done by screening between 3 to 4 years old healthy children in the Netherlands. The children were measured by using a non-invasive oscillometric device, Arteriograph which is able to measure several parameters such PWVao, SBPao & AIx. based on the obtain results, however, the AIx was significantly inversely associated with body height; It was not significantly associated with age, sex or (birth) weight.
Measuring arterial stiffness parameters with the Arteriograph in preschool is quite practical method and can be put as a dignosis tools for the cardiovascular diseases prevention.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reason behind increased Augmentation index (AIx) in children, which usually could be seen in adults with cardiovascular diseases.
The subjects had been examined by using the non-invasive, occlusive, oscillometric Arteriograph device. The time lapses between the peaks of P1 and P2 are equal to the travel time of the aortic pressure wave from the aortic root to the bifurcation and back referred to as RT was calculated by software.
The results proved that the increased AIxao detected in early childhood can only be caused by the shorter RT owing to the shorter aortic length, that is, due to the early return of the reflected systolic pulse wave consequently the AIxao elevates. The mean values of PWVao were essentially unchanged between age 3 and the start of the puberty, in girls and boys alike.